Monday, July 27, 2009


Bio-diesel is the name of a clean burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable resources. Bio-diesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a bio-diesel blend. It can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines with little or no modifications. Bio-diesel is simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics.

How is bio-diesel made?

Bio-diesel is made through a chemical process called transesterification whereby the glycerin is separated from the fat or vegetable oil. The process leaves behind two products -- methyl esters (the chemical name for bio-diesel) and glycerin (a valuable byproduct usually sold to be used in soaps and other products).

Is Bio-diesel the same thing as raw vegetable oil?

No! Fuel-grade bio-diesel must be produced to strict industry specifications (ASTM D6751) in order to insure proper performance. Bio-diesel is the only alternative fuel to have fully completed the health effects testing requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Bio-diesel that meets ASTM D6751 and is legally registered with the Environmental Protection Agency is a legal motor fuel for sale and distribution. Raw vegetable oil cannot meet bio-diesel fuel specifications, it is not registered with the EPA, and it is not a legal motor fuel.

For entities seeking to adopt a definition of bio-diesel for purposes such as federal or state statute, state or national divisions of weights and measures, or for any other purpose, the official definition consistent with other federal and state laws and Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) guidelines is as follows:

Bio-diesel is defined as mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats which conform to ASTM D6751 specifications for use in diesel engines. Bio-diesel refers to the pure fuel before blending with diesel fuel. Bio-diesel blends are denoted as, "BXX" with "XX" representing the percentage of bio-diesel contained in the blend (ie: B20 is 20% bio-diesel, 80% petroleum diesel).

Thursday, July 16, 2009

Final year project titles

Underground object detection by means of GPR
Prepaid Electricity Meter
X-Ray Inspection systems
Voice recorder using ADC and microcontroller
GPS Reciever
Internet enabled Electricity meter
New Gamepad
Auto Navigation
Microprocessor based railway system
EPROM based Display
Long Range FM transmitter
Home Automation using X 10
Temperature sensor based Home Security System

Harmful Effects of Petrol

Since ancient times, people have inhaled the fumes of different chemicals like incense, oils, resins, burning spices and perfumes to alter consciousness or as part of religious ceremonies. The first report of people sniffing petrol to get 'high' was in the US in 1934. After that people realised they could also get high from sniffing all sorts of household products that contained volatile fumes: glue, aerosols, chrome – based paint, paint thinner, cleaning fluids and lighter fluids.

Petrol sniffing is a form of substance misuse. Petrol sniffers deliberately inhale the petrol fumes given off for the intoxicating effect. They hold a saturated cloth over their nose and mouth or sniff directly from a small container. Intoxication can be rapid, within one to five minutes. Depending on the method, the effects may last for minutes or several hours. Young people also sniff other substances such as glue, photocopier fluid, aerosols, paint thinner, cleaning and lighter fluids.

People inhale through the mouth or nose using either a cloth soaked in petrol or a small container filled with petrol. Petrol goes from the lungs to the bloodstream and then into the brain. There it slows down brain activity and depresses the central nervous system in a similar way to alcohol. Within seconds the person can feel euphoric, relaxed, dizzy, numb and light. They may also experience:

increased libido
lack of coordination, staggering
slurred speech
coughing, wheezing
slow reflexes
They may look like someone who is drunk on alcohol but act a bit more strangely. Sometimes you can smell the strong odour of petrol on them. These effects can last up to an hour, and longer if they keep sniffing. In serious cases people may have fits.

It is possible to die from sniffing the first time because the petrol is taking the place of oxygen in the blood and not enough oxygen is being taken to the brain. People have died this way from sniffing with a jumper or blanket around their head because it stops oxygen getting to the lungs.

People have died from doing exercise like running or playing football straight after sniffing. The combined stress of sniffing and exercise put too much pressure on the heart.

Many people who sniff have suffered serious burns or death because the petrol caught fire. Sniffing around any flames or fire is very dangerous.

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Monday, July 6, 2009

Papaya Juice - Cure for Dengue

I would like to share this interesting discovery from my friend who has just recovered from dengue fever. Apparently, he was in the critical stage at the ICU when his blood platelet count drops to 15 after ! 15 liters of blood transfusion.
He was so worried that he seeked another friend's recommendation and he was saved. He confessed to me that he was given raw juice of the papaya leaves. From a platelet count of 45 after 20 liters of blood transfusion, and after drinking the raw papaya leaf juice, his platelet count jumps instantly to 135. Even the doctors and nurses were surprised. After the second day he was discharged. So he asked me to pass this good news around.
Accordingly it is raw papaya leaves, 2pcs just cleaned and pound and squeeze with filter cloth. You will only get one tablespoon per leaf. So two! Tablespoon per serving once a day. Do not boil or cook or rinse with hot water, it will loose its strength. Only the leafy part and no stem or sap. It is very bitter and you have to swallow it like "Won Low Kat". But it works.
You may have heard this elsewhere but if not, I am glad to inform you that papaya juice is a natural cure for dengue fever. As dengue fever is rampant now, I think it's good to share this with all.
A friend of mine had dengue last year. It was a very serious situation for her as her platelet count had dropped to 28,000 after 3 days in hospital and water has started to fill up her lung. She had difficulty in breathing. She was only 32-year old. Doctor says there's no cure for dengue. We just have to wait for her body immune system to build up resistance against dengue and fight its own battle. She ! already had 2 blood transfusion and all of us were praying very hard as her platelet continued to drop since the first day she was admitted.
Fortunately her mother-in-law heard that papaya juice would help to reduce the fever and got some papaya leaves, pounded them and squeeze the juice out for it. The next day, her platelet count started to increase, her fever subsided. We continued to feed her with papaya juice and she recovered after 3 days!!!
Amazing but it's true. It's believed one's body would be overheated when one is down with dengue and that also caused the patient to have fever. Papaya juice has cooling effect. Thus, it helps to reduce the level of heat in one's body, thus the fever will go away. I found that it's also good when one is having sore throat or suffering from heat.
Please spread the news about this as lately there are many dengue cases. It's great if such natural cure could help to ease the sufferings of dengue patients.
Furthermore it's so easily available.
Blend them,squeeze the juice, drink immediately! It's simple and miraculously effective!!

Petrol from natural gas

Petrol, mixture of the lighter liquid hydrocarbons used chiefly as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. It is produced by the fractional distillation of petroleum oil; by condensation or adsorption from natural gas; by thermal or catalytic decomposition of petroleum or its fractions; by the hydrogenation of producer gas or coal; or by the polymerization of hydrocarbons of lower molecular weight.

Petrol (known in the United States as gasoline) can be produced by the direct distillation of crude petroleum, when it is known as straight-run petrol. It is usually distilled continuously in a bubble tower (see Distillation), which separates the fractions of the oil that will be blended to become petrol from those having higher boiling points, which are blended to form products such as kerosene, fuel oil, lubricating oil, and grease. The range of temperatures in which fractions suitable for petrol boil and are distilled off is roughly between 38° C to 205° C (100° F to 400° F). The yield of petrol from this process varies from about 1 per cent to about 50 per cent, depending on the oil. Straight-run petrol now makes up only a small part of petrol production because of the superior merits of the various cracking processes.

Some natural gas contains a percentage of natural petrol that may be recovered by condensation or adsorption. The most common process for the extraction of this component includes passing the gas as it comes from the well through a series of towers containing a light oil called straw oil. The oil absorbs the petrol, which is then distilled off. Other processes involve adsorption of the petrol on activated alumina, activated carbon, or silica gel.

High-grade petrol can be produced by a process known as hydrofining, that is, the hydrogenation of refined petroleum oils under high pressure in the presence of a catalyst such as molybdenum oxide. Hydrofining not only converts oils of low value into petrol of higher value but at the same time purifies the product chemically by removing undesirable elements such as sulphur. Producer gas, coal, and coal-tar distillates can also be hydrogenated to form petrol.

For use in high-compression engines, it is desirable to produce petrol that will burn evenly and completely in order to prevent knocking, which is the noise and damage caused by premature ignition of a part of the fuel and air charge in the combustion chamber. The antiknock characteristics of a petrol are directly related to its efficiency and are indicated by its octane number. This is a rating that describes the performance of a fuel in comparison with that of a standard fuel containing given percentages of isooctane and heptane. The octane number given to the fuel is the same as the percentage of isooctane in the standard fuel of the same performance. The higher this number, the less likely a fuel is to cause knocking. Cracked petrol has better antiknock characteristics than straight-run petrol, and any petrol can be further improved by the addition of such substances as tetraethyl or tetramethyl lead. Since it was discovered, however, that the emission of lead from such petrols is dangerous to human beings—among other effects, raising blood pressure—research on new ways to reduce the knocking characteristics of petrol was intensified.

Low-lead petrols were introduced in the early 1970s as a result of increased public concern about air pollution, and cars were increasingly equipped with catalytic converters to reduce their emission of pollutants. Because even low-lead petrol “poisons” the catalyst, the proportion of leaded petrol in the United States declined from 73 per cent of the total supply in 1976 to less than 10 per cent by 1990. European countries moved more slowly in this direction, largely by placing extra taxes on leaded petrol. Many environmentalists called for much-increased use of gasohol and cleaner-burning natural gas in the late 1990s. However, there was widespread concern over alternative biofuels' impact on global warming and they came to be considered partly responsible for sharp food price increases experienced worldwide towards the close of the first decade of the 21st century.

A Perfect Solution to petrol crisis

It looks like petrol won't be budging from the $1.20 mark any time soon. Society has to seriously start looking at alternative forms of fuel and transport. In this spirit, I've come up with a great idea: chariots. Sydneysiders should be made to ride horse-drawn chariots to work. Sure, everyone will turn up hours late, but imagine the fun. It'll be like living in Ben-Hur.

Of course, there will be a period of adjustment. We'll have to knock down multilevel car parks and rebuild them as high-rise stables. Roads will have to be fixed to deal with the new horse traffic. Forget about paying the e-toll - there'll be "neigh" tolls. Petrol stations will become hay stations selling bales of hay, green apples and cubes of sugar.

Mechanics will be replaced by blacksmiths, who will continue the tradition of their mechanic forefathers by being sexist and overcharging for a simple horseshoe replacement. Road signs will be changed to reflect the new horse traffic. Stop signs will read "whoa, neddy". Go signs will read "yah! yah!", complete with a picture of a man using a whip on a nag. Speed limits will be abolished. Single horse and buggies will be the new Volvos. Men going through mid-life crises will buy Porsche chariots. Idiots or those trying to be wittily ironic will hang fluffy dice on their horses' blinkers. People will put stickers on the backs of their chariots that read, "My other horse is a stallion
Road rage will be replaced by whip rage, with riders laying into each other over real or imagined slights. The menaces on the road won't be four-wheel-drives, they'll be four-horse chariots, driven by Mosman mothers picking up their children from school. Public transport might be a problem. If people are angry about trains being 10 minutes late, they're likely to be even angrier when their 100-seat superchariot arrives 10 hours late.

The other drawback is that there will be manure everywhere. But no revolution is without hardship.

Ferries will become galleons. No one will dare complain about the ferries being late - they'll be too worried about pirates periodically raiding them.

On the plus side, you'll never have to worry about losing your car keys again.

Petrol from Plastic waste-"A Project developed by velammal engineering students"

With Pondicherry generating a high volume of plastic waste, the government owned Pondicherry Agro Services and Industries Corporation (PASIC) has hit upon a plan to generate petrol from the waste.

The Microbiology wing in the Corporation in collaboration with the management of Chennai-based Velammal Engineering College has mobilised technical and other expertise for the production of petrol from plastic waste.

A team from the college (attached to the department of Chemistry) headed by D. Sivaraj and his students held a demonstration in the presence of the Chief Minister, N. Rangasamy, on the premises of PASIC recently to show how petrol and other fuel could be generated from the used plastic materials.
R Dayalan the microbiologists in PASIC said that Pondicherry was generating 300 tons of solid waste daily in which plastic wastes comprised 30 per cent.

Twin benefits
By generating the fuel the project would help solve the problem of environmental pollution due to plastics and provide an alternative fuel source. Disposal of plastic wastes was a problem facing environmentalists and the policy makers. But the innovative plan to produce petrol and allied fuel was a step in the direction of cashing in on the pollutant itself.
It was felt that if a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed with the college for further intensified efforts to realise the establishment of the plant there could be perceptible development to generate petrol, save foreign exchange and also enjoy allied benefits.

It would be only a recycling process to generate `wealth from waste',

The demonstration was witnessed among others by the Agriculture Minister, A. Namassivayam, Local Administration, A. Elumalai, the chairman of PASIC, R. Kamalakannan, the Managing Director of the corporation, Natarajan, officials of the corporation and the academics from local technical and non technical institutions.

A clean and self-sustained Pondicherry could be achieved by converting plastic waste into fuel and generation of power could also be the spin off effect.

Gasohol-"A Substitute to Petrol"

Gasohol, a blend of nine parts unleaded petrol and one part alcohol (ethanol or methanol), used extensively in some countries to reduce the cost of petrol as motor fuel. Raw materials for methanol production are coal and organic wastes, especially waste-wood products, while ethanol may be distilled from grain, sugar crops, or almost any starchy plant. Although in most of the world in the early 1980s it remained more expensive than petrol, gasohol is derived from renewable sources.

Alcohol was used interchangeably with petrol in the first internal-combustion engines in the 1870s, and petrol-alcohol blends have been used periodically in Europe when oil was in short supply. Two petrol-alcohol blends, alcoline and agrol, were sold in the United States in the 1930s but were unable to compete successfully with low-cost petrol. The oil shortages of the 1970s prompted a revival of interest in alcohol blends, an interest further increased after 1985 by restrictions on leaded petrol. Gasohol can be used without modifying the carburettor, ignition timing, or fuel lines of a car, and has a slightly higher octane rating than ordinary unleaded regular petrol.

Petrol from Bacteria - "Future petrol"

Those nasty tummy bugs caused by the presence of a common bacteria E.coli, may turn out to have a good side, because this diarrhoea causing bug may become the fuel of the future.

According to American scientists working at the University of California (UCLA) E.coli can be used to make alcohol that is as much as 300% more efficient than the ethanol additives currently in use.

The scientists have managed to genetically alter the E.coli so that it is able to produce something called “long-chain alcohol” which is highly suited for use in aircraft propulsion.

It is also thought that it could be added to many other fuels including basic petrol and diesel.

The huge advantage is that bacteria grow at a rate that does not even compare to regular plants used for producing biofuel.

They reproduce astonishingly quickly as we all know. After eating food contaminated with E.coli we can become sick within a few hours.

It is hoped that the new additive will be added to corn and other food based biofuels to give a much needed boost to the fuels’ efficiency.